Research Publications


We provide the expertise to design reliable sampling strategies, conduct field sampling programs, and interpret and statistical analyze chemical results to assess environmental impacts as well as wildlife and human exposure to contaminants.  Control/reference samples are imperative for a successful monitoring program.


Peer Reviewed
Journal Publications:

S.J. Genuis, D. Birkholz, L. Curtis, and C. Sandau. (2013) Paraben Levels in an Urban Community of Western Canada, ISRN Toxicology, Vol. 2013, Article ID 507897, pp. 8.

Megson, G. O’Sullivan, S. Comber, P.J. Worsfold, M.C. Lohan, M.R. Edwards, W.J. Shields, C.D. Sandau, D.J. Patterson Jr. 2013. Elucidating the Structural Properties that Influence the Persistence of PCBs in Humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Dataset. Science of the Total Environment, Vol 461-462, p. 99-107.

L.S. Cesh, K.H. Elliott, S. Quade, M.A. McKinney, F.Maisoneuve, D.K. Garcelon, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Letcher, T.D. Williams, and J.E. Elliott. 2010. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and metabolites: Relation to circulating thyroid hormone and retinol in nestling bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 29, No. 6, p. 1301–1310.

O’Sullivan, B.J. Min, J.M. Bilyk, R. Ciezki, R. Calosing, C.D. Sandau. 2010. Forensic Geo-Gas Investigation of Methane: Characterization of Sources within an Urban Setting. Environmental Forensics Vol. 11, No. 1, p.108-116.

Dallaire, G. Muckle, É. Dewailly, S.W. Jacobson, J.L. Jacobson, T.M. Sandanger, C.D. Sandau, P. Ayotte. 2009. Thyroid Hormone Levels of Pregnant Inuit Women and their Infants Exposed to Environmental Contaminants. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 117, No. 6, p. 1014-1020.

Li, C.D. Sandau, L.C. Romanoff, S.P. Caudill, A. Sjodin, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson Jr. 2008. Concentration and Profile of 22 Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites in the US Population. Environmental Research Vol. 103, No. 3, p. 320-331.

T.M. Sandanger, P. Dumas, M. Marchand, C.D. Sandau, M. Sinotte, J. Brisson, P. Ayotte. 2007. Plasma Concentrations of Selected Organobromine Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Postmenopausal Women of Québec, Canada. EnvironmentaHealth Perspectives Vol. 115, No. 10, p. 1429-1434.

L.C. Romanoff, Z. Li, K.J. Young, N.C. Blakely III, D.G. Patterson Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2006. Automated Solid-Phase Extraction Method for Measuring Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites in Human Biomonitoring using Isotope-Dilution Gas Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B ? Analytical Technologiesin the Biomedical and Life Sciences Vol.835,No.1-2,p. 47?54.

T.M. Sandanger, M. Brustad, C.D. Sandau, E. Lund. 2006. Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a coastal northern Norwegian population with a high fish-liver diet. Journal of Environmental Monitoring Vol. 8, Issue 5, p. 552-557.

A.T. Fisk, C.A. de Wit, M. Wayland, Z.Z. Kuzyk, N. Burgess, R. Letcher, B. Braune, R. Norstrom, S.P. Blum, C.D. Sandau, E. Lie, H.J.S. Larsen, J.U. Skaare, D.C.G. Muir. 2005. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. The Science of the Total Environment Vol. 351?352, p. 57–93.

Maervoet, A. Covaci, P.Schepens, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Letcher. 2004. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 112, No. 3, p. 291-294.

Saito, A. Sjödin, C.D. Sandau, M. Davis, H. Nakazawa, Y. Matsuki, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2004. Development of a accelerated solvent extraction and gel permeation chromatography analytical method for measuring persistent organohalogen compounds in adipose and organ tissue analysis method. Chemosphere Vol. 57, No. 5, p.373-81.

C.D. Sandau, A. Sjödin, M.D. Davis, J.R. Barr, V.L. Maggio, A.L. Waterman, K.E. Preston, J.L. Preau, Jr., D.B. Barr, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2003. Comprehensive solid phase extraction method for persistent organic pollutants – validation and application to the analysis of persistent chlorinated pesticides. Analytical Chemistry Vol. 75, No. 1, p. 71-77.

J.R. Barr, V.L. Maggio, D.B. Barr, W.E. Turner, A. Sjödin, C,D. Sandau, J.L. Pirkle, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2003. A new high resolution mass spectrometric approach for the measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human serum or plasma. Journal of Chromatography B Vol. 794, No. 1, p. 137-148.

C.D. Sandau, P. Ayotte, É. Dewailly, J. Duffe, R.J. Norstrom. 2002. Pentachlorophenol and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites in umbilical cord plasma of neonates from coastal populations in Québec. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 110, No. 4, p. 411-417.

C.D. Sandau, I.A.T.M. Meerts, R.J. Letcher, A. McAlees, B. Chittim, A. Brouwer, R.J. Norstrom. 2000. Identification of 4-hydroxy-heptachlorostyrene in polar bear plasma and its binding affinity to transthyretin: a metabolite of octachlorostyrene. Environmental Science & Technology Vol. 34, No. 18, p. 3871-3877.

Wiberg, R.J. Letcher, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom, M. Tysklind, T. Bidleman. 2000. The enantioselective bioaccumulation of chiral chlordane and alpha-HCH contaminants in the polar bear food chain. Environmental Science & Technology Vol. 34, No. 13, p. 2668?2674.

C.D. Sandau, P. Ayotte, É. Dewailly, J. Duffe, R.J. Norstrom. 2000. Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian Inuit. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 108, No. 7, p. 611?616.

R.J. Letcher, R.J. Norstrom, D.C.G. Muir, C.D. Sandau, K. Koczanski, R. Michaud, S. De Guise, P. Beland. 1999. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2?bis(chlorophenyl)-1, 1 dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leusus) from the St. Lawrence river estuary and Western Hudson Bay, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Vol. 19, No. 5, p. 1378-1388.

Wiberg, R.J. Letcher, C.D. Sandau, J. Duffe, R.J. Norstrom, P. Haglund, T. Bidleman. 1998. Enantioselective gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of methylsulfonyl PCBs with application to arctic marine mammals. Analytical Chemistry Vol. 70, No. 18, p. 3845?3852.

Book Chapters:

Ricards and C. Sandau. 2013. Sample Collection and Management for Environmental Forensic Investigations. In. G. O’Sullivan and C. Sandau (Eds.) Environmental Forensics for Persistent Organic Pollutants, 141-162. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (ISBN:978-0-444-59424-2).

G.O’Sullivan, J. Bilyk, J. Waddell and C.D. Sandau. 2010. Differentiating Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Modern Phytogenic Hydrocarbons in High Organic Content Soils Using Biomarkers. In. R.D Morrison and G. O’Sullivan (Eds.) Environmental Forensics – Proceedings of the 2009 INEF Annual Conference. 1-11. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry.

D.G. Patterson Jr., G. O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2010. The Use and Misuse of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Data for Assessing Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. In. R.D Morrison and G. O’Sullivan (Eds.) Environmental Forensics – Proceedings of the 2009 INEF Annual Conference. 188-201. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Extended Conference Abstracts:

S. Mundle and C. Sandau. 2015. Characterizing the source zones for surface casing vent leaks.  SPE/CSGM Gas Migration Challenges – Identification and Treatment Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

C.D. Sandau and P. Houle (2010). Case Study to Establish Background Soil Concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Organohalogen Compounds. Dioxin Conference, San Antonio, USA.

D.G. Patterson Jr., G. O’Sullivan, and C.D. Sandau (2010). Data Comparability Between Biomonitoring Studies for PCDD/Fs – Issues for the Use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Data. Organohalogen Compounds. Dioxin Conference, San Antonio, USA.

G.O’Sullivan, B.J. Min and C.D. Sandau. 2010. Source and Fate of Methane within an Urban Setting. Air & Waste Management Association Annual Conference, Calgary, Alberta.

C.D. Sandau, J.L. Waddell, T. Berthelet. 2008. Novel Approach to High Water Cut Measurement in a Mature Oil Field. Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Dumas, T.M. Sandanger, C.D. Sandau, A. Sjödin and P. Ayotte, 2006. Semi-Automated Method for the Determination of 150 Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Serum Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) with Simultaneous DR-CALUX Assay. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 68, p. 1593. Dioxin Conference, Oslo, Norway.

P.A. Nony, A.C. Nye, C.D. Sandau. 2006. PCB Data Validation and Interpretation for Establishing Fish Consumption Guidelines in the USA ? A Texas Case Study. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 68, p.2214. Dioxin Conference, Oslo, Norway.

T.M. Sandanger, M. Brustad, C.D. Sandau, E. Lund. 2006. Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a coastal northern Norwegian population with a high fish-liver intake. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 68, p. 464. Dioxin Conference, Oslo, Norway.

W.J. Mills, C. Simpson, C.D. Sandau. 2005. Population and sample based statistical analysis for NHANES PCB-153 and 180 data. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 67, p. 1760. Dioxin Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

T.M. Sandanger, C.D. Sandau, D.G. Patterson, Jr., G. Muckle, É. Dewailly, S.W. Jacobson, J.L. Jacobson, P. Ayotte. 2005. Concentrations of halogenated phenolic compounds in plasma samples from Inuit mothers and their newborns in Nunavik, Canada. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 67, p. 854. Dioxin Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

T.M. Sandanger, P. Dumas, M. Marchand, C.D. Sandau, M. Sinotte, J. Brisson, P. Ayotte. 2005. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plasma samples from postmenopausal women in Quebec, Canada. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 67, p. 667. Dioxin Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, M.D. Davis, A.L. Waterman, A. Sjödin, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2003. Development of an automated solid phase extraction method for the analysis of halogenated phenolic compounds for human biomonitoring using high-resolution mass spectrometry detection. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 60, p. 5?8. Dioxin Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

C.D. Sandau. 2003. Toxicology and environmental levels of halogenated phenolic compounds. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 65, p. 51-54. Dioxin Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

D.G. Patterson Jr., W.E. Turner, A. Sjödin, C.D. Sandau, J.-F. Focant, J. Grainger, L.L Needham. 2003. Fast, senstitive, and comprehensive analytical methods including three-dimensional analysis (GCxGC-TOFMS) for measuring halogenated persistent organic pollutants. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 60, p. 387-390. Dioxin Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

R.J. Norstrom, M. Smithwick, S. Polischuk, C. Sandau, J. Duffe, N. Lunn, I. Stirling, D. Muir, C. Sonne-Hansen, R. Dietz. 2003. Polar bears as biomonitors of levels, trends and effects of contaminants in the Arctic. Northern Contaminants Program Symposium on Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

J.R. Barr, V.L. Maggio, W.E. Turner, D.B. Barr, J.L. Pirkle, A. Sjödin, C,D. Sandau, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2002. New mass spectrometric approaches for the measurement of PCBs and persistent pesticides in human serum. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 55, p.191-194. Dioxin Conference, Barcelona, Spain.

Sjödin, C.D. Sandau, J.R. Barr, M.D. Davis, K. Preston, J.L. Preau Jr., A.L. Waterman W. Román, V.L. Maggio, D.G. Patterson Jr. 2002. Validation of a high throughput semi-automated sample preparation method for persistent pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum, based on solid phase extraction. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 55, p. 17-20. Dioxin Conference, Barcelona, Spain.

C.D. Sandau. 2002. Halogenated phenolic compounds – formation, effects and levels in biota. EnviroAnalysis Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

R.J. Letcher, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom, A. Brouwer, M. van den Berg. 2000. The endocrine?disrupting potential of methyl sulfone and hydroxylated PCB metabolites in marine wildlife and humans. Atlantic Coast Contaminants Workshop June 22-25, 2000, University of Conneticut.

C.D. Sandau, M. Ramsay, R.J. Norstrom. 2000. Implication of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and other halogenated phenolic compounds as endocrine disruptors in polar bears. EnviroAnalysis Conference p. 247-252. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

S.C. Newson, C.D. Sandau, J.E. Elliott, S.B. Brown, R.J. Norstrom. 2000. PCBs and hydroxylated metabolites in bald eagle plasma – comparison to thyroid hormone and retinol levels. EnviroAnalysis Conference p. 257-263. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, P. Ayotte, É. Dewailly, Å. Bergman, E. Klasson-Wehler, R.J. Norstrom. 1998. Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) in whole blood from Canadian Inuit.   Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 38, p.29-32. Dioxin Conference, Stockholm, Sweden.

Wiberg, R. Letcher, C. Sandau, R. Norstrom, M. Tysklind, T. Bidleman. 1998. Enantioselective analysis of organochlorines in the arctic marine food chain: chiral biomagnification factors and relationships of enantiomeric ratios, chemical residues and biological data. Organohalogen Compounds. Vol. 35, p.371?374. Dioxin Conference, Stockholm, Sweden.

C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom. 1998. Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH?PCBs) in polar bear plasma and human whole blood. EnviroAnalysis Conference p. 405-410. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom. 1996. Comparison of methylation methods for the determination of hydroxy-PCBs and preliminary results for polar bear blood plasma. Organohalogen Compounds Vol. 29, p. 412-417. Dioxin Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Magazine Articles:

Waddell, B.J. Min and C.D. Sandau. 2011. Condensate Impacts in Fractured Bedrock – Delineation and Pilot Scale In-Situ Chemical Oxidant Remediation. Canadian Reclamation, Issue 1, Volume 20, pg. 30-32.

O’Sullivan, J. Waddell, B.J. Min and C.D. Sandau. 2010. Hydraulic Fractioning and Permeation as a Tool for in-situ Chemical Oxidation. Canadian Reclamation, Issue 1, pg. 34-37.

O’Sullivan, E.J. Martin, J. Waddell, C.D. Sandau, G. Denham, M. Samis. 2009. Applying Petroleum Biomarkers as a Tool for Confirmation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in High Organic Content Soils. Canadian Reclamation, Issue 2, pg. 48-51

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau, E.J. Martin. 2008. Application of environmental forensic techniques for source identification of PAHs. Canadian Reclamation, Issue 1, pg. 24-27.

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau, R. Calosing. 2008. Forensic geo-methane investigation at a former nuisance ground. Canadian Reclamation, Issue 2, pg. 32-35.

Conference Proceedings:

Sandau, 2012 Importance of Knowing What is Normal (the need for control or background samples)? Alberta Chapter of Canadian Land Reclamation Association Conference, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.

Sandau, 2012 Case Study Involving Resident Drinking Water Post Fracking Event, Canadian Society of Unconventional Resources, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Sandau, 2012. “Fracking Up” Drinking Water? Water Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

D.G. Patterson, Jr, G. O’Sullivan and C.D. Sandau, 2011. Data Comparability Between Biomonitoring Studies for PCDD/Fs – Issues for the Use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Data. Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 1, S33.

Sandau, B.J. Min, and J. Waddell. 2010. In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Fractured Bedrock. Alberta Chapter of Canadian Land Reclamation Association Conference, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.

D.G. Patterson Jr., G. O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2010. Comprehensive Fingerprinting of Chemical Mixtures for Environmental and Biological Forensics. Pacifichem, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Sandau, B.J. Min, and J. Waddell. 2010. Effective Use of Environmental Forensics for Determining Liability on Unknown Sources of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Sandau, P. Houle, and G. O’Sullivan. 2010. Background Soil Levels and Patterns of Polychlorinated Dioxins and Furans Found in Central Alberta. Alberta Chapter of Canadian Land Reclamation Association Conference, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.

C.D. Sandau. 2009. Legal Sampling and Data Validation for Environmental Litigation. International Network of Environmental Forensics. Calgary, Canada.

Bilyk, G. O’Sullivan, J. Waddell, C.D. Sandau. 2009. Delineation of Petroleum Impacts within Soil Using Biomarkers. International Network of Environmental Forensics. Calgary, Canada.

C.D. Sandau. 2009 Data Validation and Providing Bullet Proof Datasets for Litigation Matters. International Network of Environmental Forensics. Calgary, Canada.

E.J. Martin, G. O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2009. Perchlorate as an Emerging Contaminant – Health Implications, Environmental Forensics, and Novel Remediation Techniques. International Network of Environmental Forensics. Calgary, Canada.

Martin, J.M. Bilyk, and C.D. Sandau. 2009. Effectiveness of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring Ambient Air Contaminants. International Network of Environmental Forensics. Calgary, Canada.

Martin and C.D. Sandau. 2009. Evaluation of the Microtox Toxicity Testing System: Does it belong in the Environmental Industry. Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Flemming, C.D. Sandau, 2009. Development of a Statistical Approach to Determining Background Groundwater Conditions at Contaminated Sites in Alberta. Water Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

D.G. Patterson Jr., G. O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2009. Comprehensive Fingerprinting of Chemical Mixtures for Environmental Forensics. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Conference, San Diego, California, U.S.A.

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau, B.J. Min. 2009. Methane Forensic Geo-Gas Investigation: Building an Urban Reference Library. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Conference, San Diego, California, U.S.A.

E.J. Martin, C.D. Sandau. 2009. Estimation of Total Dietary Intake of Perchlorate and Impacts on Setting MCLs for Drinking Water. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Conference, San Diego, California, U.S.A.

C.D. Sandau, E.J. Martin, B.J. Min. 2008. Recent Trend in Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology Illustrated With Case Unique Studies in Canada and the United States. KOSSGE Conference p. 16. Pohang, South Korea.

C.D. Sandau, G. O’Sullivan. 2008. Development of Toxic Equivalent Fingerprint for Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and its application within Source Identification. KOSSGE Conference p. 17. Pohang, South Korea.

C.D. Sandau, E.J. Martin, G. O’Sullivan. 2008. Environmental Forensic Principles for Source Allocation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

E.J. Martin, G. O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2008. PAH Analytical Techniques and Impacts on Risk Assessment. Society of Toxicology p. 264, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2008. Development of Toxic Equivalent Fingerprint for Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and its application within Source Identification. International Environmental Conference, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2008. Use of Forensics to identify sources of methane. Air and Waste Management Association Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2008. Environmental Forensics- The CSI of Environmental Investigations. National Canadian Land Reclamation Association Conference, Kananaskis, Alberta, Canada.

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau. 2008. Application of Environmental Forensic techniques for source identification of PAHs. Alberta Chapter of Canadian Land Reclamation Association Conference, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, G. O’Sullivan. 2008. Environmental Forensics – The CSI of Environmental Investigations. Canadian Land Reclamation Association National Conference, Kananaskis, Alberta, Canada.

C.D. Sandau. 2008. Comedy of Errors of Analytical Proportions. Canadian Land Reclamation Association, National Conference, Kananaskis, Alberta, Canada.

O’Sullivan, E.J. Martin, C.D. Sandau. 2008. Development of toxic equivalent fingerprinting for sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and its application within source identification. p44. International Environmental Forensics Conference, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

O’Sullivan, C.D. Sandau, B.J. Min. 2008. Forensic geo-gas investigation to develop a methane reference library for urban sources and its application for source identification of fugitive methane emissions. International Environmental Forensics Conference, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

C.D. Sandau, B.J. Min, J. Waddell. 2008. Quality, Confidence and Lack of Control: Back to the Basics – Part 1. Canadian Land Reclamation Association Regional Conference, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, G. O’Sullivan, E.J. Martin. 2008. Perchlorate as an emerging contaminant – health implications, environmental forensics, and novel remediation techniques. Water Technologies Symposium, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada.

E.J. Martin, C.D. Sandau. March 2008. Preliminary estimation of total dietary intake of perchlorate and impacts on setting maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. 47th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Seattle, Washington, USA.

C.D. Sandau. 2007. Environmental Forensics – Principles and applications for liability management using selected case studies. KOSSGE Conference p. 44, Busan, South Korea.

Heaton, J. Waddell, D. Maxwell, C.D. Sandau, M. Samis. 2007. Phytogenic vs. petrogenic contamination: a swampy issue. Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

B.J. Min, C.D. Sandau, J. Waddell. 2007 Guideline Feasibility Assessment Tool: Determination of Appropriate Remediation Guidelines for Environmental Liability Management under the New Alberta Environment Tiered Guidelines, Canadian Land Reclamation Association, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, B.J. Min, J. Waddell. 2006. Environmental Forensics as a tool for Environmental Liability Management, Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, P.A. Nony. 2006. Quality Assurance-Quality Control (QA-QC) Requirements and Statistical Interpretation of PCBs in Fish and Sediment Samples for Litigation Involving Environmental Forensics. Environmental Forensics: Chemical, Physical and Biological Methods Conference, University of Durham, United Kingdom.

Sutherland, C.D. Sandau, C. Ollson, M. Stephenson, G. Clyde, E.J. Martin, G. Ramesh, J. Bucko, B. Thompson, M. Nahir, L. Spagnuolo. 2006. Challenges of conducting environmental risk assessments in Canada’s north: a case study of former military installations. Federal Contaminated Sites National Workshop, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

R.J. Letcher, K.J. Fernie, S. Shahmiri, S.-G. Chu, S.R. de Solla, C.D. Sandau. 2006. Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) From Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and Detroit River Areas of Concern (AOCs): Metabolic Formation Versus Bioaccumulation of Hydroxylated PCBs and PBDEs. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Annual Meeting, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

R.Y. Wang, S.P. Caudill, C.D. Sandau, A. Sjodin., Z. Li, L.C. Romanoff, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson. 2006. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Children in the United States. ology Vol. 17, No. 6, p. S34.

Li, J.Mulholland, C.D. Sandau, T.Russell, D.G Patterson Jr., Andreas Sjodin. 2005. Determination of Particle-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Outdoor Air using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Isotope Dilution GC/MS. ISPAC, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, Z. Li, L.C.S. Romanoff, D.G. Patterson, Jr., M.A. Villalobos, L.P. Naeher. 2005. Evaluation of Peruvian Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Urinary Biomarker Measurements. ISPAC, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Li, L.C.S. Romanoff, K. Young, N. Blakely III, R. Wei, D.G. Patterson, Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2005. Concentrations of Urinary Mono-Hydroxy Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the General U.S. Population: Results from the NHANES 2001-2001 Survey. ISPAC, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Brolsma, C.D. Sandau. 2005. Pyramid Mountain Diesel Full Storage Site Remediation. Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Li, L.C.S. Romanoff, K.J. Young, N.C. Blakely III, R. Wei, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2004. Biomonitoring of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diesel exhaust by measurement of urinary biomarkers. Epidemiology Vol. 15, No. 4, p. S75.

K.J. Young, L.C.S. Romanoff, Z. Li, N.C. Blakely III, R.W. Wei, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2004. Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Metabolites in Human Urine Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Detection. The 31st Annual Conference of the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers (NOBCChE), San Diego, California, USA.

N.C. Blakely III, Z. Li, L.C.S. Romanoff, K.J. Young, R.W. Wei, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2004. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites in Human Urine. The 31st Annual Conference of the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers (NOBCChE) 2004, San Diego, California.

C.D. Sandau, Z. Li, L.C.S. Romanoff, N.C. Blakely III, K.J. Young, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2004. Measurement of nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites for human biomonitoring. PITTCON, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

L.C.S. Romanoff, Z. Li, K.J. Young, N.C. Blakely, III, D.G. Patterson, Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2004. Method development for biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites, PITTCON, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

C.D. Sandau, T. Sandanger, D.G. Patterson, Jr., G. Muckle, S.W. Jacobson, J.L. Jacobson, É. Dewailly, P. Ayotte. 2003. Relation between plasma concentrations of hydroxylated phenolic compounds and thyroid hormone status in Inuit neonates. Neurotoxicology, Vol 25, No. 4, p. 686. 21st International Neurotoxicology Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

C.D. Sandau, D.G. Patterson, Jr., P. Ayotte. 2003. Effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis and implications for brain development from hydroxylated organochlorine metabolites in sows and their offspring. Neurotoxicology, Vol 25, No. 4, p. 690-691. 21st International Neurotoxicology Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

N.C. Blakely III, Z. Li, L.C.S. Romanoff, K.J. Young, R.W. Wei, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2003. Analysis of Amino Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites in Human Urine Using GC/HRMS. American Chemical Society 55th Southeast Regional Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

K.J. Young, L.C.S. Romanoff, Z. Li, N.C. Blakely III, R.W. Wei, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., C.D. Sandau. 2003. Biomonitoring Hydroxylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in Human Urine. American Chemical Society 55th Southeast Regional Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

C.D. Sandau, Z. Li, L.C.S. Romanoff, N.C. Blakely III, K.J. Young, and D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2003. Methodological Developments for Human Biomonitoring of Urinary Metabolites of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. ISPAC, Courmayeur, Italy.

Li, S.H. Edwards, C.D. Sandau, J. Grainger, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2003. Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Metabolites and Diesel Exhaust Biomarkers in Human Urine by Gas Chromatography/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. ASMS, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

D.B Barr, A.O. Olsson, R. Bravo, C. Sandau, L.L. Needham. 2002. Biological monitoring of exposure to pesticides: A comprehensive approach to internal dose measurements, Epidemiology Vol. 13, No.4, p. 909.

C.D. Sandau, P. Ayotte, E. Dewailly, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2002. Levels and effects of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and other halogenated phenolic compounds on thyroid hormone homeostasis. Conference: Thyroid hormone and brain development: translating molecular mechanisms to population risk. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

A.T. Fisk, S. Backus, S. Brooks, S.C. Newson, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom, D.M. Whittle. 2002. Halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs) in the blood of Lake Trout from the Great Lakes basin. International Association for Great Lakes Research (IAGLR), p. 39-40. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

C.D. Sandau, A. Sjödin, M.D. Davis, A.L. Waterman, W. Román, D.G Patterson, Jr. 2002. Development of a semi-automated comprehensive extraction and multiple fractionation (S ACEMF) method – PART II – isolation and purification of PBDEs, persistent pesticides, PCBs and PCB metabolites from serum. PITTCON p. 968, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Sjödin, C.D. Sandau, M.D. Davis, A.L. Waterman, W. Román, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2002. Development of a semi-automated comprehensive extraction and multiple fractionation (S ACEMF) method – Part I – evaluation of different solid phase sorbents and optimization of overall recovery PITTCON p. 967, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

M.D. Davis, C.D. Sandau, A. Sjödin, D.G. Patterson, Jr., L.L. Needham. 2002. Evaluation and comparison of a Micromass GCT instrument for the analysis of halogenated micro?contaminants. PITTCON p. 2213, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Wiberg, R.J. Letcher, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom, M. Tysklind, T.F. Bidleman. 2001. Enantioselective analysis of organochlorines in the arctic marine food chain: chiral biomagnification factors and relationships of enantiomeric ratios, chemical residues and biological data. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.

Wiberg, R.J. Letcher, C. Sandau, J. Duffe, R.J. Norstrom, P. Haglund, T.F. Bidleman. 2001. Enantioselective separation of methylsulfonyl PCBs using chiral GC-MS with application to Arctic biota. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.

D.G. Patterson, Jr., J. Barr, J.M. Dimandja, J. Grainger, C.D. Sandau, A. Sjödin, C. Smith. 2001. Fast analytical and sample preparation methods for environmental and biomonitoring programs. ICASS, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

A.T. Fisk, S. Newsome, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom, M. Whittle. 2001. Halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs) in the blood of Great Lakes lake trout. SETAC, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

R.J. Letcher, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom. 2001. PCB and organochlorine biotransformation and methyl sulfone and phenolic metabolites in Arctic marine biota, Aquatic Toxicology Workshop. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

A.T. Fisk, C.D. Sandau. 2001. Organochlorine contaminants and metabolites in elasmobranches: Have ecotoxicologists missed a susceptible animal? American Elasmobranch Society, Pennsylvania, USA.

C.D. Sandau, D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2001. High–resolution electron impact mass spectrometry of halogenated phenolic compounds (including hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs) and their determination in plasma. PITTCON p. 965, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

A.T. Fisk, J.L Pranschke, G.W. Benz, G. Skomal, G.M Pastershank, C.D. Sandau, M.A. Ramsay, M.A. Treble, P.J. Landry, J. Moisey, R.J. Norstrom. 2000. Persistent organic pollutants in Greenland Shark (Somiosus microcephalus): concentrations, hydroxylated metabolites and enantiomeric fractions of chiral pollutants. SETAC, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

C.D. Sandau, P. Ayotte, É. Dewailly, R.J. Norstrom. 2000. Hydroxylated Metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) in human blood. PCB Workshop, Lexington, Kentucky, USA

C.D. Sandau, S. Newson, J.E. Elliott, R.J. Norstrom. 1999. PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites in Bald Eagle plasma and comparison to thyroid hormone levels. SETAC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

K.G. Drouillard, C.D. Sandau, R.J. Norstrom. 1998. Quantifying plasma lipids in avians using gravimetric, colorimetric and enzymatic techniques. SETAC, San Francisco, USA.

Wiberg, R. Letcher, C. Sandau, R. Norstrom, T. Bidleman. 1997. Enantioselective separation of methyl sulphonyl PCBs using chiral GC-MS with application to arctic biota. SETAC, San Francisco, USA.

Wiberg, R. Letcher, C. Sandau, J. Duffe, R. Norstrom, T. Bidleman. 1997. Enantioselective analysis of organochlorines in an arctic food chain. SETAC, San Francisco, USA.

Thesis:

C.D. Sandau. 2001. Analytical chemistry of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and other halogenated phenolic compounds in blood and their relationship to thyroid hormone and retinol homeostasis in humans and polar bears. Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario.

Book Chapters: 1

Sample Collection and Management For Environmental Forensic Investigations”, In Environmental Forensics for Persistent Organic Pollutants, Ed. G. O’Sullivan and C. Sandau, Elsevier, 2014.


Peer Reviewed Publications: 12


Conference Proceedings:

  • Analysis of Coal Tar Components for Coal Source, MGP process and Post-formation Alteration Chemical Markers, Richards, PI; Gauchotte-Lindsay, C; Kalin, R; Thomas, R; Proceedings of the 34th AMOP Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response, 2011.

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Theses: 2

  • MRes, 2011, University of Strathclyde, Title: Analysis of tar components for source fingerprinting and bio-degradation products identification.
  • PhD, 2004, University of Liverpool. Title: Phosphazenate ligands as stable platforms for multinuclear organometallic arrays.


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